In the shooting pre-emption – it's the distance that manages to overcome the target until it gets a charge. The ability to make it count depends on the accuracy of the shooting. There are people who are by nature quite accurately determine pre-emption when shooting, they intuitively feel, where will be the target, and mark in this place. But most shooters and hunters gain this skill through long practice and awareness, what is the value of pre-emption and how it is calculated mathematically.

First of all, we need to introduce the basic concepts.

- The Trajectory of the target – an imaginary line, which passes the target. The trajectory is characterized by the spatial position of the target, its speed and direction of motion (velocity vector).
- Sighting line - a straight line passing through the center bore through the bar of the sight, ideally, it will connect the sight of the arrow and the target at the point of its destruction.
- The impact Angle with the target (α) – the angle between the direction of movement of the target at the point of lesion and the sighting line.

The value of the lead depends on the speed of movement of the target and the time it takes for the charge to reach the goal. This time, in turn, depends on the distance to the target and the velocity of the charge. There are three types of agencies:

- True;
- Observed;
- Hidden.

The True pre-emption – this is the distance that manages to pass the target on its trajectory after the shot and before the hit in her charge. This distance depends only on the time of flight of a bullet/grit and the speed of the target is calculated by a fairly simple formula:

_{}=V_{M}*t_{S}

Where_{And} – a true advance, V_{M} is the speed of the target, t_{S} is the time of flight of the charge.

An Example of the calculation. Speed of target of 10 m/s Firing from a distance of 50 meters, the average charge rate is 400 m/s to calculate the velocity of the charge to the target, it is necessary that the distance divided by the speed of the charge is obtained t_{S} = 50/400 = 0.125 s. we Find an anticipation:

_{} = 10*0.125 = 1.25 meters.

But the magnitude of true pre-emption visually coincides with what the shooter sees, only in one case: if the target is moving perpendicular to the sighting, which is the angle α is equal to 90°. Naturally, such conditions are rare, in most cases, the target moves at an oblique angle relative to the arrow view, therefore, the observed pre-emption – it is a kind of projection of the true distance that will move the target.

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The Observed pre-emption is determined not only by time of flight of the charge and velocity of the target, but in many ways the impact angle target (α). The smaller this angle, the less the observed value of pre-emption. At an angle α = 0° the goal is to fly strictly from the shooter or fly to it, meaning to take proactively will be possible. The observed pre-emption is calculated as follows:

_{N} = Y_{And}*sin(α)

Where a_{N} is the observed pre - emption,_{And} - true preemption, α - angle target.

An Example of the calculation. Take an anticipation from the previous example and assume that the target is removed from the shooter at an angle of 45° with respect to its view (line of sight), then the observed pre-emption will equal:

_{N} = 1.25 * sin (45°)= 1.25 x 0.707 = 0.88 meters.

There is another kind lead – it is hidden, which is unlikely true for hunters and idle lovers of shooting. Its value is insignificant, therefore, the influence on the calculation of the distance traveled by the target from the shot to hit, negligible. Implicit pre-emption consists of the time of combustion of gunpowder when fired (approximately 0.003 seconds) and the time of passage of the charge in the barrel (about 0.004 seconds), that is, it is a total of 0.007 seconds.

So little time take into account only the professional hands in the competition of the Olympics and world Championships, where even the tiny nuances that can affect the result.

**Article in other languages:**

**Alin Trodden** - author of the article, editor

"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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