Cross-country types of athletics include cross (cross-country) and a smooth running track in the stadium. Smooth running is divided into types depending on duration: long and medium distances.
The Stadium discipline require from the athlete such qualities as endurance, high speed of reaction and tactical thinking.
Running a long distance (3-10 km) is carried out on cross sections with natural obstacles. Conventionally, there are such cross-country stages of the process: start and starting acceleration, the race and the finish line. Tactics of running a long distance, as well as technique, this rule, which remained virtually unchanged for centuries. However, every athlete can be an individual technique, helping him to win the competition.
Appliances running stride remains the same over the entire distance, in the process changing only the ratio of the length and frequency of step and its dynamic characteristics. The changes are individual, depend on the physiological characteristics of each athlete.
Sprinting in the right technique depends primarily on the capacity of effort of the athlete and economy of movements. This runner not only has to have a solid strength training, but to be able economically to spend energy. The longer the distance, the more resilient and capable of continuous operation must be the athlete.
Sprinting begins from the start. A good start determines the success of the competition. Original position at high start: one foot (shock) situated at the starting line, and the other (centrifugal) – two steps back. Torso bent 45 degrees forward, legs bent at the knees. Arms bent at the elbows and placed opposite towards the feet.
The Athlete begins Jogging in an inclined position, and in the process gradually straightens up. Starting acceleration is continued for the first hundred meters (depending on race distance). In this phase, the athlete develops a maximum speed, above speed of finish.
Most of the lap, the athlete runs at a moderate speed, with his body slightly inclined forward, shoulders relaxed, scapula slightly reduced ago. Lower back has a slight natural SAG, and the head is kept straight and without tension. It is very important during the run not to strain the muscles of the head and neck, to avoid unnecessary energy costs. The hands should not swing to the torso not careened to the side, which affects the speed of the athlete. The amplitude of oscillation of the shoulder is determined by the height of the elbow.
During the finish, the sprinting changes in the technique runners make the throw length of 200 m (the length depends on the physical capacity of the athlete).
The Inclination of a trunk forward increases arm movements are more active to give speed. Under the influence of fatigue, running technique might be upset: reduced coordination and speed, efficiency repulsion increases the time support.
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