Vehicles – this is perhaps the most common SUVs in our country. Higher maintainability, simplicity of design, reliability – all factors that contribute to their popularity for many decades. Unfortunately, the mechanics, no matter how reliable it may be, is not eternal. Including devices of electrical equipment. Failures in their work are many, but the most crucial element – a generator of electric current. About it and discussed today.
This is a device for converting the rotation of the crankshaft into electric current. The generator is part of the power-supply system. When the engine is running the node recharges the battery and provides the ignition system, service engine and the car electric current. Performance problems not so much. But to understand the cause, should further clarify the principle of operation of this device.
Structurally, the device repeats the conventional motor with the difference that the rotor is driven with a belt drive from the crankshaft pulley and its rotation activates an alternating current with rectifier unit is converted to DC.
But the magnitude of this current depends on the frequency of rotation of the rotor and, accordingly, engine speed. Therefore, the generator is supplied by a regulator output voltage that stabilizes it. The mechanism works regardless of the frequency of rotation of the rotor.
A UAZ in the factory performance – quite a low powered car. In the early releases of the current impact of the generator was only 40A. Subsequently, the parameter increased to 60A. Changed the design of the rectifier Assembly, and voltage regulator. Some had regular generator UAZ "Loaf"? Model 452 – a very unreliable unit. About his problems, fortunately, can be easily recognized by a built-in dashboard ammeter. Another feature of the old alternator is the voltage regulator, made in the form of a separate unit. If it is defective, owing to the excitation winding of the motor when the ignition refused to stall.
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The New generators have different design and, consequently, a different scheme of connection. Here the voltage regulator built into the brush holder and is made as a single unit. The differences relate to the timing belt. Older devices were cited by a narrow strap, new – broader, poly-V. Generator UAZ “Patriot” is more powerful, with an output current up to 120A, since this car is equipped with many electrical consumers that are not in previous models.
How to connect the device quite a lot. The fact is that depending on the type of generator (with external voltage regulator or built-in) possible a variety of connection. In all cases the connection of the generator of the Oise is made by means of three wires. This is a General plus to your battery, ignition switch, light and voltmeter on the instrument panel. Upgrade options connection quite a lot. And they all require a pretty serious knowledge of the principles of automotive electrics. Otherwise, you may a minimum of a short circuit in the rectifier unit.
As already mentioned, there are many versions of the generators on the Oise. Many of them are only installed on specific engines, including the UMP. Due to the fact that the timing on these engines chain, pulley of the generator is combined with the water pump and the impeller of the radiator. Has a rather large size of the alternator belt UAZ. He is from 1030 to 1238 mm in length.
The Basic model – 6РК1220.In addition, there are modifications to the steering. His pump is a separate drive belt to a smaller length. The UAZ “Patriot” timing belt. What modifications has the alternator belt? UAZ “Patriot” diesel-type can be equipped with different items. On cars up to 2012 – 6РК 2100 (single strap), after 2012 – with two straps 6РК 1220. Choosing the right element, should be guided by the manual, and parts catalog specific engine.
How is the removal or replacement of the generator? UAZ "Loaf" like any other vehicle from time to time also requires maintenance or repair. It should be noted that the process of dismantling the device differs from the one in VAZ models – longer strap, or even two, and leading auxiliary units, which complicate the work. Prior to surgery, carefully removed the negative terminal of the battery. Next, disconnect all wires and terminals from the device that produces a current.
To extract the generator of the Oise, need to get belt power steering (if any), loosen the tension bar generator and removestrap quite. Unscrewed the two bolts holding the upper bar mounts. Next, long turns the bolt securing the alternator to the engine block from below. After that, the car successfully removed the generator. UAZ “Patriot” has some of the feature – it is not necessary to remove the second belt, and the tension is regulated by a special roller. Installation is performed in reverse order.
The work of the generator on the UAZ raises many questions and problems. This primarily applies to old structures and connections. Dramatic way – complete replacement of the generator with installation on any pulley, removed from your old device, or compilation of the new. Due to the fact that our time is used as an UAZ off-road cars for hunting, fishing or extreme sports, they installed a large number of additional electrical equipment.
Regular generator Oise is unable to cope with the increased workload and require replacement of individual parts or the entire device in the case, for example, short circuit of stator. But you can fix old gear the extra diodes in the rectifier. Motorists modify the voltage regulator. And if he is a new sample, we establish a three-level element with an external control unit. Best results, of course, provides a replacement in a foreign generator (for example, «Toyota», at 120A). The revision is only to replace the crankshaft pulley.
The Most common failure – the breakdown of the diodes in the rectifier block (the so-called “horseshoe”). Replacement in this case is subject to the entire block. Also generator UAZ fails due to failure of the voltage regulator. Because of this, the voltage drops in the battery with the engine running. Is netosalade battery. Also during the operation erased the brushes in the brush unit. Here, too, the voltage drops in the battery under load. Due to natural wear and tear of carbon brushes are used they become shorter and worse are pressed against the contact ring while working.
One condition is wear of bearings of the rotor axis. It can be natural or caused by excessive tension of the alternator belt. In this case, to replace the bearings (two of them – front and rear) they should remove from the landing nest and replace with a new one. In all cases, the alternator must be removed from the vehicle for maintenance and prevention. For long-term and continuous work of the device is affected by the condition of his timing belt. Scrapes and cracks are a sign of wear. This belt is subject to immediate replacement.
Therefore, the correct and uninterrupted operation of electrical equipment of the car UAZ is largely based on the efficiency of the generator. And opportunities of improvements of the voltage regulator and replacement of other elements can significantly extend the capabilities of the electrical system and adapt it to the consumption of a higher number of appliances.
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