Do Not underestimate the importance of learning in human life-both the child and the adult. People need to be ready to absorb new information. After all, you never know where life person prepares a new lesson.
Training in psychology – the process of collective nature, aimed at the assimilation of the younger generation the experience that has been gained in the course of history and embodied in accordance with social objectives. In modern psychological science there are a number of different patterns that accompany the process of gaining new skills and knowledge. All patterns are divided into two major categories - private and public. Those that cover the entire training system called the total; in contrast, they apply to a specific aspect of learning are naming individuals.
In the psychology of learning concepts that can be called the main in this direction is the following:
The knowledge of man – the facts and concepts that they learned in the learning process. Skills – the willingness of the student to independently carry out the desired action a theoretical and applied nature. Skills – it components practical activities the student, manifested by performing certain actions and brought students to automaticity.
First we need to consider General patterns. The purpose of training is called the result, which must be obtained from this process. He even planned in advance, before the student or the student starts learning new information or acquiring skills. For example, when learning a foreign language a student can pass one stage for three months. It is assumed that after this time he will have a set of specific knowledge and skills. One of the General laws of knowledge is the principle of learning objectives. It lies in the fact that the goals of education depend on the level of development of society, its opportunities and needs, and also the level of development of the pedagogical system.
Another pattern of a General nature is the principle of learning content. The content is a specific response to the question of what to teach people. In each case the answer will be your. Training content – this is a special system of knowledge that is taught in a particular educational institution. The principle of learning content is that it depends on goals, level of scientific and technical progress, the age characteristics of the student and the level of development of the theory and practice of teaching.
As for the quality of mastering of a new material or acquisition of skills, the pattern is: at each new stage the efficiency of absorption depends on productivity in the previous step. Quality of education affects the volume of the material its character. In many ways, the result depends on the time that the student invests in class, his learning abilities, as well as the organization of the process.
Training in psychology – it's a process, whose effectiveness depends on the methods employed. The latter refers to the various types of interactions of the teacher with pupils, resulting in the assimilation of the experience of the past. It is believed that to achieve the highest results in training it is necessary to combine traditional methods and innovative. In relation to teaching methods there is also a law. The effectiveness of the learning process depends on:
The learning Process in psychology is also in accordance with the laws which have a private nature. There are the following specific patterns classified as didactic:
To the specific epistemological character of the principles include the following:
Training in psychology – this process is directly related to human development. For the first time in the history of national psychology to this problem the main focus of an outstanding scientist Lev Semenovich Vygotsky. He carefully analyzed the works of their colleagues from abroad – J. piaget, E. Thorndike. They were also interested in the psychology of learning problems. And the result of their research, Vygotsky formulated a hypothesis about the impact of learning on personal development. Lev Semenovich assumed a leading role in human development is played by the training. As a result of the research of Vygotsky and piaget in science has become generally accepted that preschool and younger school age there are significant changes in the child's thinking. Namely, the transition from pre-logical to logical. Now this principle is one of the most important in the psychology of learning and education.
The Scientist believed that the entrance to the human consciousness can be possible only through speech. Learning Vygotsky believed internally necessary for the child element, which is characterized by universality – it is inherent in the people historically. Training and development in psychology represent similar processes. The child is typed in individual experience in the process of maturation. Its development depends on the cultural environment in which it is located. Every kid can be taught the things adults. Vygotsky believed that learning always precedes development, and leads the process.
Once in relation to the learning process was made a lot of myths, misconceptions. For example, it was believed that a student – it is a tabula rasa, or a kind of empty vessel. It occupies a passive position and waits for the teacher fills it with knowledge. Currently, pedagogy and psychology of learning developed a lot of methods to make this process more efficient. One method is to determine your individual style of learning, that is, to find a way through which the processing of information. Developed the concept was scientists P. honey and A. Mumford. The researchers identified four main learning styles are:
By Identifying your style of leading learning, the student may adjustthe educational process and thus make it more effective.
Special attention should be paid to issues such as the development of speech man. Because language is not only communication tool, but also an instrument of thinking. Linguist Svetlana Burlak emphasizes that children with an early age tend to learn the names of objects. When a person evokes a particular word, then there is the image of the subject, its appearance, color, smell. This affects the activation of specific areas of the brain. For example, after a spoken word “sour” the word “lemon” recognized much faster than after the word “blue”.
St. Petersburg state University Professor Tatiana Chernigovskaya emphasizes that the development of speech, reading and writing of children occurs at different times. Statistics show that about 40 % of all children, even after the end of the third class have difficulty with writing and reading. This difference is due to the fact that each child has its own “age of school maturity”. One of the baby's brain is ready to learn, the other – yet. So do not immediately panic if a child learns to speak or read later than his peers. It is important to begin to teach the child time-not too early and not too late for him.
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