The First Soviet luxury car GAZ-12 (ZIM) was produced in the workshops of the Gorky automobile plant in the period from 1949 to 1959. The car was intended for the official use of members of the government, senior party leaders.
Development of the model GAZ-12 was conducted in a short time, didn't have time to create a domestic external parameters of the new machine, so took the American "Buick" of 1948. Copy the exterior did not, used only the basic outlines.
The Body of the GAZ-12 made monocoque, all-metal, structurally detachable frame was not. As a separate body element is used only under engine module, which is attached at the bottom of the front bolt. I must say that the design Bureau of the plant has assumed a certain risk, mainly based on the frameless option as a six-seater vehicle with three rows of seats were considered to require a reserve of stiffness along the length, which can provide only a powerful frame construction of channel.
But all was solved in the best way the necessary supply of hardness was created by the diagonal welded sections, located across the plane of the underside of the car. Thus it was possible to reduce the overall weight of the body without losing strength factor.
But in the process of operation of cars GAZ-M-12 began to identify serious defects caused by the loss of stiffness of structural elements. The structural strength weakened due to constant vibration stresses, and tensions arising from rocking of the machine in the longitudinal plane. As a result, frameless body option had to be abandoned.
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Originally the GAZ-12 was going to hand, while preparing the documentation for the serial pipelined process. A mass-production vehicle is made possible due to the high degree of unification, which by some measures has reached 50 percent. Many components and assemblies was borrowed from the model "Pobeda M-20", truck GAZ-51 and the later - GAZ-53-12, which at the time was in development.
This car had the upgraded engine GAZ-11 with a cylinder capacity of 3 485 cubic sm, capacity of 90 HP, which is 120 kilometers per hour top speed of the GAZ-12.
The Engine, the characteristics of the powertrain:
The Car GAZ-12 was equipped with a gearbox with the following characteristics:
The External data of the vehicle meets the requirements of the time, the contours of the body were rounded, smooth transitions gave the impression of integrity of the structure. It was a trend followed by all the American manufacturers of cars, is no exception and WINTERS. The GAZ-12 was the first multi-car class, and, of course, the car was a matter of pride as both creators and those people for whom it was intended.
The Car is involved in all festive demonstrations, exhibited at ENEA in the pavilion "Automotive industry of the USSR." In spite of the then existing "iron curtain" between the Country Councils and Western States, the GAZ-12 were taken abroad for display at showrooms Berlin, Madrid and Paris.
The Interior of the Soviet limousine was trimmed in accordance with the concepts of luxury of the period. All metal parts in the cabin are covered with a decorative pattern, and decoration of valuable sorts of wood added to the impression of luxury. The floors in the car necessarily pastillas carpets, which contributed to the almost complete noise isolation.
The level of luxury in the decoration of the cabin 12 of the model it is surpassed only by governmental ZIS-110, which has never operated as a taxi or as an ambulance, and was considered the highest level of passenger cars manufacturing in the USSR.
The GAZ-12 was the first and last car of a representation class, which can be purchased at retail. The cost of the machine to 1961 amounted to $ 40,000. At that time it was a lot of money when you consider that the average salary of the Soviet person did not exceed 650 rubles. Prestigious car "Pobeda M-20" cost 16 000 rubles, and the "Moskvich-401" - nine thousand. Thus, the queue for ZIM not lined up, but of researchers and critical artists of this machine was owned.
In the early seventies there was a mass cancellation of the GAZ-12 from state institutions. These cars were purchased by private owners who could not purchase a new "Lada", which cost about five thousandrubles.
Today you can find WINTERS in different, sometimes unexpected places. On some cars there are engines from trucks, it is unimaginable drivetrain and all sorts of exotic mechanisms. Machine in the original equipment - a rarity.
By the end of 50-ies of the model GAZ-12 was rapidly losing its reputation. The global automotive fashion abruptly changed direction, and everywhere began the modernization of factory equipment for the manufacture of bodies fundamentally new form.
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