GAZ-12: specifications and photos


2019-12-01 20:20:14




1Like 0Dislike


The First Soviet luxury car GAZ-12 (ZIM) was produced in the workshops of the Gorky automobile plant in the period from 1949 to 1959. The car was intended for the official use of members of the government, senior party leaders.

gas 12


Development of the model GAZ-12 was conducted in a short time, didn't have time to create a domestic external parameters of the new machine, so took the American "Buick" of 1948. Copy the exterior did not, used only the basic outlines.


The Body of the GAZ-12 made monocoque, all-metal, structurally detachable frame was not. As a separate body element is used only under engine module, which is attached at the bottom of the front bolt. I must say that the design Bureau of the plant has assumed a certain risk, mainly based on the frameless option as a six-seater vehicle with three rows of seats were considered to require a reserve of stiffness along the length, which can provide only a powerful frame construction of channel.

But all was solved in the best way the necessary supply of hardness was created by the diagonal welded sections, located across the plane of the underside of the car. Thus it was possible to reduce the overall weight of the body without losing strength factor.

But in the process of operation of cars GAZ-M-12 began to identify serious defects caused by the loss of stiffness of structural elements. The structural strength weakened due to constant vibration stresses, and tensions arising from rocking of the machine in the longitudinal plane. As a result, frameless body option had to be abandoned.


“Hyundai i40” – comfortable car for the European market

“Hyundai i40” – comfortable car for the European market

“Hyundai i40” – is a large family car, which is representative of the middle class. The model is focused on the European buyer. This car shared a platform with well-known North American Hyundai Sonata. Sales model started in 2011 an...

"DAF-105": specifications, user manual

Though the flagship model of the truck ‘DAF XF-105” and is not considered a new edition model was launched back in 2005, the buyers and the drivers have not lost interest in this truck. Needless to say, that he made his debut very success...

Bike sports: characteristics and types of sport motorcycles

Bike sports: characteristics and types of sport motorcycles

Speed and freedom – these are the two feelings experienced motorcyclist, sitting on his iron horse. Generally there are many types of motorcycles. Each of them performs some specific functions, but the main today are the so-called Moto sport bi...

gas engine 12


Originally the GAZ-12 was going to hand, while preparing the documentation for the serial pipelined process. A mass-production vehicle is made possible due to the high degree of unification, which by some measures has reached 50 percent. Many components and assemblies was borrowed from the model "Pobeda M-20", truck GAZ-51 and the later - GAZ-53-12, which at the time was in development.

Power plant

This car had the upgraded engine GAZ-11 with a cylinder capacity of 3 485 cubic sm, capacity of 90 HP, which is 120 kilometers per hour top speed of the GAZ-12.

The Engine, the characteristics of the powertrain:

  • The type of petrol;
  • Number of cylinders - 6;
  • Stroke - 110 mm;
  • Diameter of cylinder 82 mm;
  • Compression - 6,7;
  • Power - carburetor K-21;
  • Cooling liquid;
  • Fuel consumption in mixed mode - 19 litres / 100 km;
  • Recommended fuel - gasoline A70, A72.


The Car GAZ-12 was equipped with a gearbox with the following characteristics:

  • Type - hydro synchronized;
  • Number of speeds - 3;
  • Gear - helical pair;
  • Maintenance - mechanical toggle lever drive.



The External data of the vehicle meets the requirements of the time, the contours of the body were rounded, smooth transitions gave the impression of integrity of the structure. It was a trend followed by all the American manufacturers of cars, is no exception and WINTERS. The GAZ-12 was the first multi-car class, and, of course, the car was a matter of pride as both creators and those people for whom it was intended.

The Car is involved in all festive demonstrations, exhibited at ENEA in the pavilion "Automotive industry of the USSR." In spite of the then existing "iron curtain" between the Country Councils and Western States, the GAZ-12 were taken abroad for display at showrooms Berlin, Madrid and Paris.

GAZ 53 12


The Interior of the Soviet limousine was trimmed in accordance with the concepts of luxury of the period. All metal parts in the cabin are covered with a decorative pattern, and decoration of valuable sorts of wood added to the impression of luxury. The floors in the car necessarily pastillas carpets, which contributed to the almost complete noise isolation.

The level of luxury in the decoration of the cabin 12 of the model it is surpassed only by governmental ZIS-110, which has never operated as a taxi or as an ambulance, and was considered the highest level of passenger cars manufacturing in the USSR.

GAZ m 12

Selling a car in private hands

The GAZ-12 was the first and last car of a representation class, which can be purchased at retail. The cost of the machine to 1961 amounted to $ 40,000. At that time it was a lot of money when you consider that the average salary of the Soviet person did not exceed 650 rubles. Prestigious car "Pobeda M-20" cost 16 000 rubles, and the "Moskvich-401" - nine thousand. Thus, the queue for ZIM not lined up, but of researchers and critical artists of this machine was owned.

In the early seventies there was a mass cancellation of the GAZ-12 from state institutions. These cars were purchased by private owners who could not purchase a new "Lada", which cost about five thousandrubles.

Today you can find WINTERS in different, sometimes unexpected places. On some cars there are engines from trucks, it is unimaginable drivetrain and all sorts of exotic mechanisms. Machine in the original equipment - a rarity.

New fashion and end of production

By the end of 50-ies of the model GAZ-12 was rapidly losing its reputation. The global automotive fashion abruptly changed direction, and everywhere began the modernization of factory equipment for the manufacture of bodies fundamentally new form.

Comments (0)

This article has no comment, be the first!

Add comment

Related News

The smell in the car. The smell of gasoline in the passenger compartment: the main causes of its appearance

The smell in the car. The smell of gasoline in the passenger compartment: the main causes of its appearance

Every driver protects your vehicle and pays special attention to any problems. Often the cause of anxiety may be an unpleasant smell in the car. If you smell gasoline or fumes, it is the first symptom of some systems of the vehicl...

Tracks for the snowmobile and their application

Tracks for the snowmobile and their application

Snow motorcycles are an increasingly popular type of technology in our country. In the Northern regions they are used often and in large quantities for a long time. However, in recent years fashion has come to the middle band, as ...

The history of the car

The history of the car "Mazda РХ7"

Model "Mazda РХ7" of the photos that are present in the article represents a legendary sports car, produced between 1978 and 2002, the eponymous Japanese company. In the original version the machine is packaged with two-...