Amino acids - what is needed? Amino acids in foods. Reactions and properties of amino acids

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2018-03-17 21:55:27

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In nature there are two groups of substances: organic and inorganic. The latter include such compounds as hydrocarbons, alkyne, alkenes, alcohols, lipids, and other nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, amino acids. Why the need for these substances, we will cover in this article. The composition of all organic compounds necessarily includes atoms of carbon and of hydrogen. They can also contain oxygen, sulphur, nitrogen and other elements. The science that studies the proteins, acids, oxides, amino acids, — chemistry. She explores the properties and characteristics of each group of substances.

Amino acids — why the need for these substances?

They are very important for the body of any living creature on the planet, as they are part of the most important substances-proteins. There are twenty-one amino acid from which these compounds are formed. Each consists of atoms of hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon and oxygen. The chemical structure of these substances is the amino group, NH2, from which comes the name.amino acid chemistry

How amino acids formed proteins?

These organic substances are formed in four phases, their structure consists of primary, secondary, tertiary and Quaternary structures. From each of them depend on certain properties of the protein. The primary determines the number and order of amino acids in the polypeptide chain. The secondary is a alpha helix or beta structure. The first are formed due to twisting of the polypeptide chain and the occurrence of hydrogen bonds within the same. amino acids for what is rightThe Second — due to the occurrence of ties between groups of atoms of different polypeptide chains. Tertiary structure is connected by an alpha-helix and beta-structures. It can be of two types: fibrous and globular. The first is a long thread. Proteins with this structure are fibrin, myosin, in muscle cells, as well as others. The second has the form of a ball, globular proteins include, for example, insulin, hemoglobin and many others. In the body of living beings for the synthesis of proteins from amino acids meet the special organelles of the cell - the ribosome. Information about proteins that need to be worked out, encrypted in the DNA and is transported to the ribosomes via RNA.

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What are amino acids?

Compounds of which proteins are formed only in the nature of twenty-one. Some of them the human body is able to synthesize in the course of metabolism (metabolism), and other — no. Actually, in nature there are such amino acids: histidine, valine, lysine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, cysteine, tyrosine, arginine, alanine, glutamine, asparagine, glycine, Proline, carnitine, ornithine, taurine, serine. The first nine of the above amino acids are indispensable. There are also uslovnopatogennah — those that the body can use is irreplaceable in extreme cases. This, for example, tyrosine and cysteine. The first can be used instead of phenylalanine, and the second — if not methionine. Essential amino acids in foods — a prerequisite of a healthy diet.

What food contains them?

  • Valine — meat, fish.
  • Histidine — buckwheat, cereals, salmon, pork, poultry.
  • Isoleucine-eggs, meat, fish, milk, cheese, curd.
  • Leucine — the same as that of isoleucine.
  • Methionine — cereals, peanuts, walnuts, pistachios, grains.
  • Threonine — meat, cereals, mushrooms.
  • Tryptophan — Turkey, rabbit, pork, mackerel.
  • Phenylalanine — meat, beans, peas, lentils, soya, fish, cheese, milk, cheese.amino acid in food

All other amino acids in foods for human consumption may not contain, as the body is able to produce them independently, but still it is desirable that some part of them came with food. Most non-essential amino acids are contained in the same products that is irreplaceable, that is, meat, fish, milk — the food that is rich in protein.

The Role of each amino acid in the human body

Each of these substances in the body performs a specific function. The most essential for proper functioning of amino acids are irreplaceable, so it's important to eat foods with their content in sufficient quantity. properties of amino acidsAs the main building material for our body is a protein, it can be said that the most important and necessary nutrients are amino acids. What is needed is irreplaceable, we are going to tell you. As has been described above, this group of amino acids are histidine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan. Each of these chemical compounds plays a specific role in the body. Thus, the valine is necessary for proper growth, so foods high in its content must be contained in sufficient quantities in the diet of children, teenagers, and athletes who need to increase the concentration of muscle mass. Histidine also fulfils an important role — involved in the process of tissue regeneration, it is part of haemoglobin (that is why at its low content in the blood is recommended to increase the number of used buckwheat). Leucine is needed for the body to synthesize proteins and to maintain the activity of the immune system at the proper level.composition aminokislot Lysine — without the substance in the body just won't digest the calcium, so it is impossible to prevent a shortage of this amino acid — you need to include in your diet more fish, cheese and other dairy products. Tryptophan is needed to make vitamin b as well as hormones that regulate hunger and mood. This substance is included in preparations to calm and eliminate insomnia. Phenylalanine is used by the body to produce such hormones as adrenaline and tyrosine. The substance may also enter into the composition of medicines, which are prescribed for insomnia or depression.

Amino acids from a chemical point of view

You already know that the components of proteins and are vital to human substances — this amino acids. Why the need for a data connection, we have examined, we now turn to their chemical properties.

Chemical properties of amino acids

Each of them they are a bit individual, although all have common features. As the composition of amino acids may be different and include various chemical elements, and properties differ slightly. Common to all substances of this group characteristic is the ability to condensation with the formation of peptides. Amino acids can react with nitrous acid, thus forming hydroxy acids, water, and nitrogen.reactions of amino acids in addition, they interact with the alcohols. This forms a hydrochloric salt of any of the air and water. For this reaction requires the presence of a catalyst of hydrochloric acid in the gaseous aggregate state.

How to identify their presence?

To determine the presence of these substances there are specific qualitative reactions of amino acids. For example, to detect cysteine, add acetate of lead, and use heat and an alkaline environment. This should be formed of lead sulfide, which precipitates black. The number of amino acids in solution can be determined by adding nitric acid. Find out the volume of released nitrogen.

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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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