We live in a dynamic society with its own rules, regulations and requirements. Coming into this world, a person begins to communicate. The first reaction from the kids on other people have already aged 1.5-2 months. And even in utero crumbs react to the voices of loved ones: father, mother, push, in response to touching the mother's stomach. This confirms the fact that every person is a social being that cannot exist without other people, communication and development in society. But the process of adaptation to the established norms and rules does not occur immediately after birth or within one to two days. It occupies a large part of our lives and everyone is different.
This is a complex transformation of the individual, which defines its adaptation in society, the development of internal structures, external interactions, etc. It is still being studied by psychologists as society is constantly changing, and requirements for the structure of personality. So, going through the stages and types of socialization, the person sometimes needs help or support. So what are the different types of addiction of the individual to society and what is the process?
No Wonder this phenomenon in social psychology called process, because it does not occur in 5 minutes. It may take a lifetime, everything depends on the surroundings, which accustomed the people, and from the structure of the personality itself.
The result of the interaction of man and society is the socialization process. When an individual enters a certain structure, he is forced to get used to and to abide by its rules. That is, the society affects him. But along with the inner changes of the individual is changing society, because he, being an active person, affects their environment. The results of socialization can be seen that the mutual change appears unique small or large groups of society, in humans, formed new patterns of behavior, norms and values.
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The Process of socialization lasts a lifetime, as the society is constantly in dynamics, is undergoing some changes, people in society forced to adapt to emerging new conditions. It continuous updates, acceptance and identification with something new, defines the adaptation of the individual to the surrounding conditions.
Form accepting the rules of society
There are two main forms of human adaptation to society and accepting the basic rules and regulations.
- Non-Directional socialization is the direct production qualities and some traits due to the fact that a person is always in a certain environment. Examples of socialization undirected: each time after eating children in the family are taught to say "thank you." He's such a character, as a thank you. Then he will already be unconscious to thank for serving food at a party, a café or when something buying. The individual adopts the social quality not only in family but also in a circle of peers, colleagues at work, surrounded by fans at the stadium, and so on.
- Directed socialization - specially crafted program or a system of means and activities that were intended to influence the person with main objective is to fit the dominant society's values, interests and ideals. Here is the basic process of education. Adaptation of the child to society will be difficult without education. This is a planned process to influence the behavior and consciousness of the younger generation. It is necessary to have a developing personality was formed attitudes, values, inactive position of work in society.
These two forms can complement each other and may conflict. After all, non-directional form of socialization involves the influence of a particular group in society and they are not only positive. In this case, actively should turn on directional effects on the formation of human values may be the parents, the school.
Stages of adaptation to the society
People in society, adapts, passing several stages. They are interconnected. The skills that the child acquired in the previous step, then improved and are the basis for the emergence of other characteristics of socialization.
- Infancy - this stage covers the first 2 years of the baby. An important factor here is communication with significant adults, which is painted with positive emotions. The child learns to respond to the appeal to him, to distinguish between negative and positive emotions. This can be seen by how he negarive eyebrows when he severely treated.
- Early childhood (2 to 5 years). The child actively explores the world, at the same time learning to interact with objects, manipulating them. Socialization occurs at a correct communication with parents.
- Pre-school childhood (six to seven years). The leading activity in this period is play time. But at this stage the process of socialization of child's personality occurs through a complicated game - playing. Little member of society is learning to share and play different roles. Playing the mother, the child learns to behave as she repeats some of her phrases, teaches "their" child. Thus, he begins to adopt the basic norms and values especially family.
- Early school age covers the period from 7 to 11 years. Radically change the social situation of child development. During this period, he reconsiders everything he knew from life experience, reinforces the acquired knowledge. Features of socialization at this age also lie in the fact that the child change authority. The main significant adult in the process of adaptation to new conditions is the teacher. With him the child communicates and interacts on a par, and sometimes even more than with parents.
- Adolescence (12-14 years). Using new knowledge, forming their opinions based on conceptual thinking and active interaction with peers, the teenager continues to get used to the rules and demands of society. At this age, he may either deny them, or to fully obey them.
- Youth age 14 to 18 years. At this stage some important events in the life of every boys or girls. It's puberty, in which young people attached to the world of adults; the successful completion of the training, the person becomes more independent. The period witnessed the formation of worldview, a change of self-esteem and, consequently, identity. Ripen in the mind the basic principles of life, self-esteem, value orientation.
- Late adolescence (18-25 years). People actively involved in labor activities. Some continue to study, get a profession. Young people gradually learn and adopt the social norms of society, learn to interact with others, to distribute duties and to fulfill them. A person develops socially and professionally.
- Maturity (25-65 years). The man perfected in the labour force and engaged in self-education.
- Poslerodovaya activities (65 and over). The person retires summarizes some of the results of life. Realizes itself in different directions (the hostess, grandma, grandpa, the practice of self-education, counseling, professional issues).
What factors affect the addictive person to society?
All kinds of socialization cannot occur without certain factors. They have a significant impact on the human adaptation to social rules. Due to these factors, people may accept and adopt the form of social norms, having already some idea of the moral, legal, aesthetic, political and religious rules.
The Main factors affecting socialization:
- Biological - diversity defines the set of characteristics of the individual;
- Physical environment - the personality can also be formed under the influence of climate and other natural indicators, these patterns of studying ethnopsychology;
- Culture - every society has its own culture, which highly influences the adoption of the norms of the society;
- A group experience - here we can recall the theory of Jung about the collective unconscious, in which he also claimed that groups influence the identity of the individual; communicating with different people, sensing their reactions, the person learns to interact in a certain environment;
- Personal (individual) experience is a unique factor, as each person in his own way takes on the patterns of education, particularly social norms, negative and positive experiences and integrates it.
Types of socialization
There are several additional are two main types of socialization:
- Primary - perception of society in childhood. The child knows the society through cultural situation of families and perception of the world significant adults - parents. Instilling core values through the patterns of education, parents form the first experience of the child. He is going through this experience and learns to perceive the other through the mechanism of identity. Through communication with significant adults in a child are formed elements of the assessment of what is happening.
- Secondary - has no end and lasts as long as people are part of the professional cu...