The Poem “the Imitation of the Koran” many consider one of the most controversial works of Alexander Pushkin. The reasoning of the poet to touch upon the most painful topic-religious. He tried to convey to the reader that blind adherence to dogma, misunderstanding the nature of faith leads to the belittling of the personality that someone can manipulate the minds of faceless people.
Analysis of the product you need to start with the history of his writing to understand the motives of the poet. Upon returning from South links to the life of Pushkin had another 2 years to pass the time in exile at the family estate of Mikhailovskoe. Voluntary, because to watch over the rebellious poet volunteered his father.
Alexander was a man of inquiring mind and just bored in prison could not. He was very active, visiting neighbors and bothering them with calls. It was a honest people, with many of the poet behaved freely and deigned to discuss politically incorrect topics. Including – religious.
Perhaps the most interesting companion to Pushkin Praskovia Alexandrovna Osipova, a neighbor of the landowner. She liked Pushkin's lyric poems about nature, profound poem. The woman had a fine mind, was a curious and, to the delight of the poet, deeply religious. The interlocutors could spend hours hot disputerelated on the topic of faith. In the end, Pushkin decided to Express their arguments in verse form, writing in 1825, 9-domed poem “the Imitation of the Koran”.
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Pushkin analysis of religion is built on the interpretation of texts from the Koran-the Holy book of Muslims. Each Chapter is based on specific stories from the life and deeds of the prophet Mohammad. It is unknown if convinced of the genius writer Praskovia Alexandrovna in the right, but heated debate among his colleagues he certainly has achieved.
Although the author wisely as critical reasoning chose the foreign faith, a work called a resonant chord. Was a rare occasion when there was not a clear compromise with the insights of the poet. Did this turn Pushkin? “the Imitation of the Koran” touches too of the intimate feelings that are important to believers.
At first glance, this creation of the deeds of the prophet. But it is enough to think about the text, and it becomes clear that the narrative is about ordinary people who are forced to blindly obey the once the accepted dogmas and laws of the Muslim faith. Why warrior of Islam needs to brandish the sword and to die, without even knowing the reasons for the war, hoping that “blessed are those who have fallen in battle”? For what, the young woman becoming a ‘pure wives of the prophet”, doomed to celibacy?
After reading it becomes clear the theme of the works of “the Imitation of the Koran”. The verse warns that while the true believers constantly follow the commandments, there are people who use their feelings for their own selfish purposes.
“rise up, fearful», – calls upon the poet. “each personal response” – this argument leads those who disagree with the categorical appeal of Pushkin. It believers have an appropriate saying: “Caesar and the God of gods”.
Writing “the Imitation of the Koran”, Pushkin analysis of the contradictions in the religious environment was placed. Everyone understood the allegorical meaning of the text. Although we are talking about Islam, refers to any faith (Orthodox in particular). One might think that Alexander – an atheist (which in tsarist times was considered sedition). However, it is not. It is known that Pushkin was respected pious people and was tolerant of all religions. He firmly believed that blind worship is not conducive to spiritual enlightenment. Only aware of yourself as an individual, you can reach out to God.
So, how to analyze? “the Imitation of the Koran” among the writers he considered a difficult work, because the text is based on the Koran. Not enough to know the Scripture books that were used by the Pushkin when writing a poem requires understanding the intricacies of Islam. Numerous studies have shown that some of the quatrains accurately follows the logic of the Qur'an and is based on an accurate interpretation of the text of this book. But Pushkin would not be itself and not bringing freedom to the interpretation of the Muslim Holy text, the more that the essence of the poem itself implies certain changes, rebirth, the rejection of dogma.
To understand the incredible complexity of interpretation, consider the entire verse of Pushkin “the Imitation of the Koran” and at least a few quatrains. The series, written in 1824, consists of nine chapters. He opens the first Chapter of ‘Swear by the couple, and Nicetas…”, consisting of four quatrains
I Swear the couple, and Nicetas
I Swear by sword and the right battle.
Lanusa the morning star,
I Swear evening prayer:
No, not left you.
One is in the shade calm
I enteredthe head of his love,
And hidden from the keen persecution?
I think the day of thirst drink
You desolate waters?
I eh thy tongue gave
With a Mighty power over minds?
He said, well, despise deception,
The Path of truth cheerfully follow,
Orphans and Love my Quran
Trembling creature preach.
The Essence of the work of researchers of creativity of the great poet is to match lines written by Pushkin, verses from the Koran. That is, in searching the information base relied upon by the poet while composing the works ‘imitation of the Koran”. The verse is difficult to study, so professionals are extremely interesting.
First of all, it turned out that the Central images of the first Chapter: «the keen persecution” and “mighty power" language "minds" - do not exist in the Quran. Meanwhile, the textual dependence of the first and last verses of the poem from the Qur'an no doubt. As if foreseeing the interest of the critics to this work, Pushkin left several remarks that helped professionals to make a more precise analysis. “the Imitation of the Koran”, for example, contains primasee note, the poet to the first stanza: “In other places of the Quran Allah swears by the hooves of the mares, the fruits of the Fig-tree, the freedom of Mecca. Strange this rhetorical is found in the Qur'an by the minute».
Closest to the first stanza of Chapter 89. The commandments, which Allah gives in the poem his prophet, racesseany throughout the text of the Qur'an. All the researchers noted works especially TESing connection of the last stanza and the first line of the second quatrain 93 Chapter of the Quran: “your Lord has not left you... don't hurt orphans, not Othello the last crumbs from the poor, proclaim mercy to you from God”. In the 2nd and 3rd stanza straightmay dependence on the Qur'an are not so obvious.
The Analysis in this part is difficult. It is talking about the miraculous rescue from persecution, but pushkinoveda't quite see what stories from the Quran. The researcher Tomaseski, for example, asserted that a similar text in the Qur'an no. However, his colleagues point out that the Koran mentions of a pursuit are present, for example:
However, the prosecution is notloyal to Muhammad mentioned in the Quran is extremely fluent. Fomichev suggested that Pushkin could use the biography of Mohammed from the Qur'an, translated into the French language, found in the library Dushkin. In this edition, quitefractional describes how Mohammed and his partner took refuge in a cave during the flight from Mecca, and Allah raised miraculously at the entrance to the cave tree. Looking into the cave and saw that the entrance is shrouded with cobwebs and what dove has postponed eggs there, the pursuers decided that there is already a long time no one came, and passed.
Perhaps the verse of Pushkin “the Imitation of the Koran” it is difficult to interpret for the reason that the poet has introduced into the product of tradition not only from the Koran but also the old Testament. After all, Pushkin was respected all religions. Words about «the keen persecution” forced to think about other pogono – about the persecution of the Pharaoh of Egypt Moses and his people during the Exodus from Egypt.
It is possible that with the creation of his poem Pushkin had in mind the biblical narrative of the crossing of the Red sea, identicationstlaa of the prophet Muhammad with the prophet Moses. The grounds for this identification is contained in the Koran, where Moses is derived, as the forerunner of Muhammad: Allah constantly reminds Mohammed of his great predeschwennicke, its first prophet-Moses. It is no coincidence that the book "Exodus", which described the acts of Moses, ascend most of the subjects are borrowed from the Bible to the Koran.
The First line in this quatrain, the researchers correlated with 11 verse 8 of Chapter of the Quran: “do Not forget. we sent down water from heaven to omovenie you, that cleansed and free of the malice of the devil”. However, Pushkin talking about quenching thirst, but not about the cleansing, “desert waters”, not on the water, sentNoah from the sky.
Perhaps, Pushkin hinted at another legend: once in the road between Medina and Damascus Mohammed could hardly draw a bucket of water from drying up stream, but pouring it back, turned it into a rich source, who drank an entire army. But in the Qur'an, this episode is missing. Therefore, a number of researchers have compared the first line of the third verse with the famous bibLaskin a story about how Moses came to serve people, iznemogayu of thirst in the desert, striking his wand on the stone, which scored a water source, because God had commanded him. In the Quran this EPIzod is mentioned twice (chapters 2 and 7).
Back to prehistory. What did Pushkin? “the Imitation of the Koran” was born in disputes with the landowner Osipova about the influence of religion on people's minds. The poet in verse form expressed their point of view. Perhaps, Pushkin took into account that Osipova closerBible stories, or he thought it would be interesting to combine several religions or to show that all religions are essentially similar.
It is Known that during work on the series, “imitation of the Koran" in Pushkin there is a need of sucto address to the Bible. “I work for the glory of the Koran”, - Pushkin wrote to his brother in the letter, which is dated the first of November 1824. Later, in the early 20-th of November, he asked his brother to send him a book: “the Bible, the Bible! And French is notpremendo”. Apparently, working on the cycle, Pushkin was fond of both Muslim and biblical scenes.
Admirers of poetry inspired lyrics of Pushkin, poems about anxious love and colorful nature. But Pushkin, above all, a citizen, a philosopher, a thinker. A fighter against injustice, tyranny, oppression. Work ‘imitation of the Koran” filled with the spirit of freedom, a call “rise up, fearful!”
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