"Gazelle" is probably the most mass in Russia the small truck class. These machines meet on the streets every day. Few remember, but the first ‘gazelles’ came with engines and transmissions from the usual “Volga”. In this form of the "Gazelle" produced in the period 1995 to 2002 inclusive. It was the engine Zavolzhsky engine plant, which received marked ZMZ-402. What it has features and characteristics? Find out in our today's article.
The Engine ZMZ-402 – one of the most popular that ever was produced in the Volga. This motor has an aluminum block with a “wet” cast iron casings. The camshaft is at the bottom. This unit was manufactured from 1981 to 2006, Originally 402 engine for ‘gazelles’ was not provided. It was a modernized motor 24, which is placed on the Soviet “Volga”. Significant differences among the 402-th motor it is worth noting changed the exhaust manifold, a lift Cam (it was higher by 0.5 mm) and the oil pump. In the rest of the ZMZ-402 was a copy of the motor 24D – of the engine from the 50s. About the engine problems we'll discuss later. By the way, the diagram of the motor ‘gazelles" (ZMZ 402) is in the photo in our article.
So, ZMZ-402 – petrol inline four cylinder motor with a working volume 2440 cubic inches. The unit has a simple carburetion power with mechanical fuel pump.System timing – vosmiklapanny, with a chain drive from the crankshaft. 402 engine ‘gazelles’ has a 92 mm stroke. The diameter of the cylinders – also 92 mm, which is why the motor had low compression and compression. This parameter was 8.2 kilograms per cubic centimeter. It was considered a critical figure 6.7 pounds. Along with the low compression engine 402 ‘gazelles" haves low power. The maximum capacity was achieved with a 4.5 thousand revs – 100 horsepower. Torque – 182 Nm at 2.5 thousand revs. And if «Volga” this option was still enough for the ‘gazelles’ anymore. The car was sensitive to the slightest overloads. Vosmiseriyny climbs seemed a real challenge for her. Manufacturer's recommended oil – 5w30-15w40. At replacement it is necessary to pour up to six liters. Regulations oil change – ten thousand kilometers. But motorists are recommended to do so before, to eight thousand.
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As for the power supply system, there was used the domestic carburetor "Pekar" model К151. It is a standard element, which is staffed all 402-e engines. "Gazelle" became the exception. Shows himself К151 in? According to owner reviews, "Pekar" – is not the best carb. On ‘gazelles’ 402 engine well behaved "Solex". He has such disadvantages as "Pekar"
As we noted earlier, ZMZ-402 – vosmiklapanny engine, so the timing system is only one camshaft. Among common problems – the need of adjusting the valves. On ‘gazelles’ 402 engine it should be done every 30 thousand kilometers. Moreover, the gaps are adjusted strictly for each fuel type. The manufacturer claims that a heat gap on both valves (intake and exhaust) should be 0.4 mm.But as practice shows, for the normal operation of the motor need other settings. Adjusting the valves on ‘gazelles’ 402 engine under 92nd gasoline must be carried out as follows. For the intake valve clearance is 0.30 mm for the exhaust – 0,25. But to drive on 76-m gasoline need to increase this parameter to 0.44 millimeters. For most the ‘Gazelles" from the 90s, which are operated today, they go on propane-butane. Under this fuel your thermal gap – 0.35 mm. With such characteristics the machine is torquey and powerful.
Any internal combustion engine needs to be cooled. Was no exception and the engine 402 ‘gazelles’. The engine cooling system of this model – liquid type with forced circulation from the pump. Scheme ODS presented in our article.The Device of this system on all ‘gazelles" the same. The only – to “van” has two heater and additionalthe electric pump. The design of the ODS include:
As the coolant the manufacturer recommends the use of antifreeze a-40. Also the motor runs on pure distilled water. However, it cannot be used in winter time.
Below we describe the most important components of the cooling system 402 engine "Gazelle".
SOD consists of two rounds – small and large. A first fluid circulates to the moment as the motor warms up. As soon as the temperature reaches a predetermined level (usually 70-80 degrees), antifreeze moves in a large circle. Why the need for a thermostat? He manages the adjustment and delivers fluid at a particular circuit depending on its temperature. As for Troubleshooting the thermostat to 402-m of the motor, often it happens the wedge element in a closed form. Consequently, the motor starts to overheat, since the fluid circulates only in a small circle, bypassing the radiator core.
Other name – water pump. This mechanism circulates antifreeze in the cooling system. Works item from the crankshaft. The higher the speed, the more spins the impeller of the pump.Among the faults of the pumps 402 to the motor it is worth noting the howl of the bearing. In this case, the pump is disassembled and the shaft Assembly with the bearing. Also useless comes to an oil seal, pulley and impeller.
From the factory to "Gazelle" 402-m motor is a three-row copper radiator. It is quite hardy and is very long. But over time (especially when using poor quality coolant) starts the internal corrosion of metal. This worsens the heat sink is strongly heated and the engine. Also corrosion leads to leaks antifreeze. As for the fan, it shestilopastnye and installed on the crankshaft pulley. Rotates the element with the same frequency as the shaft. Fan runs constantly, causing the 402-th motor can not normally be heated in the winter.
Often cut off the rope that closes the valve on the stove. Because of this, it is warm in both summer and winter. The heatsink and fan are relatively long.
The First is the block of cylinders and in the cylinder head. The principle of operation of the water jacket easy. Cold antifreeze that goes from the radiator enters the channels of the block and picks up some heat. Next, the liquid again enters the radiator and is cooled. Among the faults of the shirt it is worth noting the obstruction of the channels and internal corrosion. Again, the culprit of this problem is poor coolant.
Some will tell you to attachments. The engine ZMZ-402 is equipped with a 65-amp model generator 1631.3701. This is a three-phase synchronous generator with integrated rectifier with silicon diodes. Operate by means of a belt from the crankshaft pulley. The rotor rotates on ball bearings, which are in caps. It should be noted that lubrication for the rotor shaft laid in his entire life. Inside back cover includes a rectifier unit that regulates the voltage. The rectifier consists of six diodes, which are installed in a horseshoe-shaped plate. This generator can output current from 12 to 14 Volts. In the stator – two three-phase windings connected to each other in parallel. Cooling – air type through the window in the lid.For the excitation on the generator rotor is winding. Her insights are two copper contact that are connected with rings of the rotor shaft. Power is supplied via the carbon brushes. Among the problems of this generator owners allocate a small capacity. For proper operation requires a minimum of 80 Ampere-hours. Also often out of order alternator brushes and “chocolate” (the voltage regulator).
Repair of motor 402 ‘gazelles’ need, not earlier than 200 thousand kilometers. For the commercial vehicle is not a long time. The motor can "capitalist” up to four times. And to repair the engine ‘gazelles’ is not needed for a long time, you need time to change it oil and not overheat the motor.You should Also set the correct ignition. On ‘Gazelles’ with a 402 engine that is exposed on the distributor. Setting ignition timing will keep the valve from burnout and increase engine acceleration.
So, we found the engine ZMZ-402. The design of this engine is very outdated, due to which there are frequent breakdowns with it. Therefore, the owners of the old "Gazelles" set instead of a more modern, 405 and 406 engines. With the same flow they give much more power and torque. But breakdowns happen to them much less frequently.
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