Rechargeable battery (battery) – this is one of the most important parts of the vehicle. It provides electricity to the starter when starting the motor, and is also responsible for the operation of the other devices with the engine off: backlight the instrument panel and interior, radio, signal, fuel pump, etc. the Normal operation of all systems is only possible with a charged battery. That is why it needs to be timely serviced and charged.
But what often happens is quite the opposite. You come to the garage or to the Parking lot, trying to start the engine, but the starter issues you or sounds unbelievable his effort a little bit to rotate the flywheel, or simply clicks the retractor relay. In addition, the dashboard warning lamp indicating the battery drainage.
Not to get into such a situation, it is necessary to systematically diagnose the battery, but first let's understand why it is discharged.
The Reasons, for which there is a discharge of the battery, there may be several. Here are some of them:
Any battery has a certain resource, even with timely service. Modern batteries, depending on operating conditions, can last between 3 to 7 years. After this period, the battery voltage of the vehicle gradually begins to decrease. This is due to the destruction of the lead plates, which, unfortunately, over time, can not be avoided. Of course, you can try to restore the battery, but work as new, it will be gone.
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The failure of the generator the charging voltage of the vehicle battery jumps, falls or is absent. In this case, the battery works in emergency mode, which can lead not only to defuse, but also to its failure.
Drain – one of the main causes of battery drain. She is easily determined with an ammeter or multimeter on its mode. Measurements of current taken between the ground terminal and the negative terminal of the battery determined by the amount of leakage. If it is above 80 mA, you should immediately contact the service to find the leak and correct the problem.
Often the owners of the machines independently installs additional electrical devices (speakers, subwoofers, lighting elements, various electronic devices), not even knowing that significantly exceed the value of the network load, provided the passport data of the car. This inevitably leads to the fact that the generator ceases to cope with this load, and part of it is covered by the battery.
It Happens that the hapless drivers, sometimes leaving the car, simply forget to turn off the dimensions, the radio, interior lights or other devices consuming electricity. Such carelessness is also the cause of rapid discharge of the battery.
Time has not serviced the battery also will never work for long. Even if in your car installed maintenance-free battery, he would need to constantly supervise and periodically charge it.
To Determine the status of the battery one way is impossible. Not worth listening to “experts”, claiming that by measuring the vehicle battery voltage or current, can be concluded about its performance. This is a complex process, involving the following activities:
The First thing you can do for the establishment of battery performance – to look at her. Appearance can tell a lot.
The Mud mixed with moisture and automotive fluids terminal – an unacceptable phenomenon. It leads to oxidation of metal parts and loss of electrical contact. As a result, in the best case unable to self-discharging in the worst – short circuit. If soiled, do not be lazy to check the current of self-discharge, to determine the necessity of maintaining cleanliness under the hood. To do this, take the ammeter, disconnect the battery leads, touch the probe to one of the terminals, and the other just slide the battery case. Indicated on the screen of the ammeter value will be the current self-discharge.
Next look at the battery housing. The presence on it of cracks and water stains evidence of mechanical damage, which caused leakage of the electrolyte. If this happens, use this battery next inappropriate. When there are drips from under the tubes, it is necessary to check the amount of the electrolyte in each of the cans and to eliminate the cause of the outpouring.
To Check the level is possible only in the accepted battery. Highly not recommendedto violate the integrity of the hull, maintenance-free battery for the conduct of unintended “service”.
If the battery is serviceable, it need to be removed to clean the dirt and remove the tube. The measurement level is performed using a special tube with a millimeter scale. It falls into the jar until it comes into contact with the upper separator plate, the opening in the top is clamped finger. When removing you can easily determine the electrolyte level. It should not be less than 10 mm. If the electrolyte level is less than the specified value, you must determine why it is lower. Usually it crashes due to conventional boiling and evaporation. In this case, you just need to fill in the jars with distilled water.
If the level has decreased as a result of spilling of the electrolyte, top up you need to prepare an electrolyte. After topping up battery need to be recharged.
The Main factor affecting the operating voltage of the vehicle battery is the electrolyte density. To measure it only by using a special device – the hydrometer. It is a large pipette with a rubber bulb at the top of the scale and float inside. Density measurement naturally also can be produced only in the serviced batteries. But what should be its value?
The electrolyte Density for fully charged battery at a temperature of 20 0C is 1.27 g/cm3. If the battery is low, the figure is reduced.
What is the battery voltage of the vehicle should be to be able to start the engine? A definite answer here there can not be.
It is Known that the voltage of a charged car battery should be about 12.6 to 12.7 V. depending on various conditions, this figure may change slightly, but if the charge dropped below 12 V, the battery can be considered discharged at 50 %. She needs to charge as deep discharge will inevitably lead to sulfation of the lead plates. But in this indicator, engine start is possible. Provided that the battery is not in need of repair, and the generator is charging, it is safe to drive. But if the voltage does not exceed 11.6 V, the battery is considered fully discharged, and its further operation without diagnostics and charging impossible.
Measure the voltage of the battery snap. This will need to disconnect from it wires and to the terminals of the voltmeter or multimeter in his routine, putting the restriction in the range of 20 V.
Now let's try to understand how interrelated the main parameters of the battery. The battery voltage of the vehicle directly depends on the density of the electrolyte. When the battery is discharged, the expenditure of acid, which is part (36 %) of the electrolyte. As a consequence, decreases its density. The reverse process occurs when charging battery: consumption of water leads to the formation of acid, with the result that the electrolyte density increases.
The Voltage of a charged car battery (12.7 In) corresponds to a density of 1.27 g/cm3. If you reduce one of the indicators is reduced and the other.
Table based on the battery voltage from the density of the electrolyte
The Density of the electrolyte, g/cm3
Voltage of the vehicle battery,
The Degree of discharge of the battery %
From car owners often hear that the battery voltage of the vehicle in winter can be significantly reduced. Leave, say, a car for a few days in the cold and all, then will not start. That is why some of them off and take the battery home.
What is happening inside the batteries at a low temperature and where it may lead? In fact, the battery voltage of the vehicle falls in the winter. Yes, the density of the electrolyte varies, but a charged battery, it grows, and is discharged – falls. In other words, if the battery is discharged, it must either charge up or to carry. Otherwise, it will not only be able to start the engine in the cold, it can freeze the electrolyte, which will lead to hull failure.
Charged battery nothing of the kind is not threatened. Yes, there are sometimes problems with the engine start, but only due to the fact that at low temperatures the chemical processes are much slower, so the battery may fail to deliver required to run power. Butenough to make it into heat, and a little to survive, and she will again be ready to work as before. Therefore, a normal battery voltage of the vehicle for the winter period does not differ from the indicators for the summer.
There are four ways to charge the battery. Each of them has its advantages and disadvantages. Let's look at them.
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